Please forward this error screen to 69. Please forward this error screen to 216. Figure 1: Example two-port network with symbol definitions. Notice the port condition is satisfied: the same current flows transistor solved problems pdf each port as leaves that port.

The two-port network model is used in mathematical circuit analysis techniques to isolate portions of larger circuits. A two-port network is regarded as a “black box” with its properties specified by a matrix of numbers. In two-port mathematical models, the network is described by a 2 by 2 square matrix of complex numbers. The common models that are used are referred to as z-parameters, y-parameters, h-parameters, g-parameters, and ABCD-parameters, each described individually below. The difference between the various models lies in which of these variables are regarded as the independent variables. These current and voltage variables are most useful at low-to-moderate frequencies.

There are certain properties of two-ports that frequently occur in practical networks and can be used to greatly simplify the analysis. Reciprocal networks A network is said to be reciprocal if the voltage appearing at port 2 due to a current applied at port 1 is the same as the voltage appearing at port 1 when the same current is applied to port 2. Exchanging voltage and current results in an equivalent definition of reciprocity. Figure 2: z-equivalent two port showing independent variables I1 and I2.

Although resistors are shown, general impedances can be used instead. All the z-parameters have dimensions of ohms. Figure 3 shows a bipolar current mirror with emitter resistors to increase its output resistance. Transistor Q1 is diode connected, which is to say its collector-base voltage is zero. Figure 4 shows the small-signal circuit equivalent to Figure 3.

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