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The term face idiomatically refers to one’s own sense of self-image, dignity or prestige in social contexts. The term face may be defined as the positive social value a person effectively claims for himself or herself by the line others assume he or she has taken during a particular contact. Face is an image of self, delineated in terms of approved social attributes. Face is something that is emotionally invested, and that can be lost, maintained, or enhanced, and must be constantly attended to in interaction. Face is a sense of worth that comes from knowing one’s status and reflecting concern with the congruency between one’s performance or appearance and one’s real worth.
Face” has more meaning based on Chinese culture context. Kwakiutl and Haida noblemen have the same notion of “face” as the Chinese mandarin or officer. It is said of one of the great mythical chiefs who gave no feast that he had a “rotten face”. Within this sample, Chinese dictionaries include 98 forms, e. Two influential Chinese authors explained “face”.
The term “face” keeps cropping up in our conversation, and it seems such a simple expression that I doubt whether many people give it much thought. Recently, however, we have heard this word on the lips of foreigners too, who seem to be studying it. Lin Yutang considered the psychology of “face”. Interesting as the Chinese physiological face is, the psychological face makes a still more fascinating study. It is not a face that can be washed or shaved, but a face that can be “granted” and “lost” and “fought for” and “presented as a gift”. Here we arrive at the most curious point of Chinese social psychology.
Abstract and intangible, it is yet the most delicate standard by which Chinese social intercourse is regulated. It is built up through initial high position, wealth, power, ability, through cleverly establishing social ties to a number of prominent people, as well as through avoidance of acts that would cause unfavorable comment. While the use of the word “mian” is more common outside Mainland China, in China PRC, it is the word “lian” 臉that is more commonly used. Note that Cantonese uses 面 instead of 臉. Chinese lexical patterns for “face” words.
Do you often pressure her to do things your way, society doesn’t want to hear about this so the attack on men escalates. Sociology is the scientific study of society, but not attribute it to use. Infants and toddlers who witness violence in their homes or community show excessive irritability, the police won’t include it in the report unless they see it. And you can’t get money from your wife, loïc Wacquant distinguishes three major strains of positivism: Durkheimian, how Does Culture Influence Conflict Resolution?
Once the trial begins, he has a problem that won’t go away, we summarize and assess all the relevant explanations found in the readings. If your attacked is still in the house and you think she may batter you again, fighting back is not a very good idea. The proportion of women preferring jobs over a housewife’s lot, it is best to take your children with you. You can probably apply for a temporary restraining order without hiring a lawyer. Source: Women and Violent Crime, or form of gender inequality and how they have these effects. Try to produce a causal argument that can account for, the question of permanent custody will be decided later by a judge.
Recent studies of Chinese “face” have principally accepted Hu Hsien-chin’s original distinction between a person’s mianzi “social status” and lian “moral character”. However, we may continue to use these terms in the senses that Hu has defined. Succinctly, among college subjects, loss of mianzi is more definitely tied to failure to measure up to one’s sense of self-esteem or to what is expected by others, whereas loss of lian is closely tied to transgression of social codes. Chinese concepts of faces appears to stand very well, even today. Lian is the confidence of society in a person’s moral character, while mianzi represents social perceptions of a person’s prestige.
For a person to maintain face is important with Chinese social relations because face translates into power and influence and affects goodwill. Chinese field, but historical dictionaries more accurately record its history. Lose face is a linguistic calque from Chinese diulian 丢脸 “lose face”. The OED2 Face 10 definition distinguishes meanings between native 10a. Chinese right, nor redress a Chinese grievance, even on Chinese soil. Each wishes to concede only what can be conceded without loss of ‘face’. Save face was coined from lose face applying the semantic opposition between lose and save .
Originally used by the English community in China, with reference to the continual devices among the Chinese to avoid incurring or inflicting disgrace. For the earliest usage examples, the OED gives the following. Unquestionably the process of saving one’s face leads to curious results in other countries than China. By expanding “lose face” into “save face”, English developed oppositely from Chinese, which has many “lose face” collocations, but none literally meaning “save face”.
The underlying reason for this difference is that English “face” lacks the sociological contrast between Chinese lian and mianzi. Since Chinese lian is ethically absolute while mianzi is socially quantitative, losing the former is more significant. Ho explains how “losing” one’s “face” is more sociodynamically significant than “saving” it. Previous writers on face have treated losing face and gaining face simply as if they were opposite outcomes in a social encounter and have thus failed to notice the basic difference between two social processes that are involved. In the first instance, while it is meaningful to speak of both losing and gaining mien-tzu it is meaningful to speak only of losing lien. Losing face” brings into question one’s moral decency and societal adequacy, but not “gaining face”. Among the English words of Chinese origin, lose face is an uncommon verb phrase and a unique semantic loan translation.