Magnetism and magnetic materials pdf

Only ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic materials have properties which magnetism and magnetic materials pdf useful in practical applications. Ferromagnetic properties are confined almost entirely to iron, nickel and cobalt and their alloys. The only exceptions are some alloys of manganese and some of the rare earth elements.

Ferrimagnetism is the magnetism of the mixed oxides of the ferromagnetic elements. These are variously called ferrites and garnets. By substituting the FeO with other divalent oxides, a wide range of compounds with useful properties can be produced. This is the flux density B per unit of magnetic field H.

A curve showing the variation of permeability with magnetic field for a ferromagnetic material is given in Fig. This is derived from the initial magnetization curve and it indicates that the permeability is a variable which is dependent on the magnetic field. 0, and the maximum permeability, corresponding to the knee of the magnetization curve. Any further increase in the field will not increase the magnetization and any increase in the flux density will be due to the added field. The saturation magnetization is Ms in amperes per metre and Js or Bs in tesla. 2 at which the field H is zero and the flux density B is zero, respectively. It is assumed that in passing round this loop, the material has been saturated.

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