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Policy Insights 2018: Thank you to the 300 people from across the state who attended our annual conference on March 22! This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. For the American TV sitcom, see The Big Bang Theory. Since Georges Lemaître first noted in 1927 that an expanding universe could be traced back in time to an originating single point, scientists have built on his idea of cosmic expansion. American astronomer Edwin Hubble observed that the distances to faraway galaxies were strongly correlated with their redshifts. This was interpreted to mean that all distant galaxies and clusters are receding away from our vantage point with an apparent velocity proportional to their distance: that is, the farther they are, the faster they move away from us, regardless of direction. Large particle accelerators can replicate the conditions that prevailed after the early moments of the universe, resulting in confirmation and refinement of the details of the Big Bang model.

However, these accelerators can only probe so far into high energy regimes. The first subatomic particles to be formed included protons, neutrons, and electrons. The Big Bang theory offers a comprehensive explanation for a broad range of observed phenomena, including the abundance of light elements, the CMB, large scale structure, and Hubble’s Law. Extrapolation of the expansion of the universe backwards in time using general relativity yields an infinite density and temperature at a finite time in the past. This primordial singularity is itself sometimes called “the Big Bang”, but the term can also refer to a more generic early hot, dense phase of the universe. Despite being extremely dense at this time—far denser than is usually required to form a black hole—the universe did not re-collapse into a black hole. The earliest phases of the Big Bang are subject to much speculation.

Panoramic view of the entire near-infrared sky reveals the distribution of galaxies beyond the Milky Way. The universe continued to decrease in density and fall in temperature, hence the typical energy of each particle was decreasing. As the universe cooled, the rest mass energy density of matter came to gravitationally dominate that of the photon radiation. Abell 2744 galaxy cluster – Hubble Frontier Fields view. Over a long period of time, the slightly denser regions of the nearly uniformly distributed matter gravitationally attracted nearby matter and thus grew even denser, forming gas clouds, stars, galaxies, and the other astronomical structures observable today.

The details of this process depend on the amount and type of matter in the universe. 11, the corresponding neutrino density Ωvh2 is estimated to be less than 0. Independent lines of evidence from Type Ia supernovae and the CMB imply that the universe today is dominated by a mysterious form of energy known as dark energy, which apparently permeates all of space. All of this cosmic evolution after the inflationary epoch can be rigorously described and modeled by the ΛCDM model of cosmology, which uses the independent frameworks of quantum mechanics and Einstein’s General Relativity. The Big Bang theory depends on two major assumptions: the universality of physical laws and the cosmological principle. The cosmological principle states that on large scales the universe is homogeneous and isotropic.