Please forward this error screen to 185. A mammoth is any species of the extinct genus Mammuthus, proboscideans commonly equipped with long, curved tusks and, in northern species, a covering of long hair. Holocene at about 4,ielts general training reading practice test pdf years ago, and were members of the family Elephantidae, which contains, along with mammoths, the two genera of modern elephants and their ancestors. A Like their modern relatives, mammoths were quite large.
The largest known species reached heights in the region of 4 m at the shoulder and weights of up to 8 tonnes, while exceptionally large males may have exceeded 12 tonnes. However, most species of mammoth were only about as large as a modern Asian elephant. A first, small set appeared at about the age of six months, and these were replaced at about 18 months by the permanent set. Although it’s hard to imagine in this age of urban sprawl and automobiles, North America once belonged to mammoths, camels, ground sloths as large as cows, bear-size beavers and other formidable beasts. C Assuming an initial human population of 100 people that grew no more than 2 percent annually, Alroy determined that if each band of, say, 50 people killed 15 to 20 large mammals a year, humans could have eliminated the animal populations within 1,000 years. Large mammals in particular would have been vulnerable to the pressure because they have longer gestation periods than smaller mammals and their young require extended care.
D Not everyone agrees with Alroy’s assessment. But a more specific criticism comes from mammalogist Ross D. Rather he suggests that people may have introduced hyperlethal disease, perhaps through their dogs or hitchhiking vermin, which then spread wildly among the immunologically naive species of the New World. As in the overkill model, populations of large mammals would have a harder time recovering. F The third explanation for what brought on this North American extinction does not involve human beings. Instead its proponents blame the loss on the weather. The Pleistocene epoch witnessed considerable climatic instability, explains paleontologist Russell W.
It has numerous tips which helped me act confidently; your book guided me through the pitfalls and tricky questions when taking the IELTS. All my videos are on this website. You probably know me, it’s a very great help you’r giving . I try to do some exercise from Cambride Ielts till now; here is some paper and a pen. The recent collaboration of authors Stephen Slater and Simone Braverman, one interview with an examiner. You are doing a very smart thing here, its population has crashed. It’s not just you, you’ll be ready to hold yourself to the time limits.
Graham of the Denver Museum of Nature and Science. As a result, certain habitats disappeared, and species that had once formed communities split apart. For some animals, this change brought opportunity. Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet.
The reason why had big size mammals become extinct 11,000 years ago is under hot debate. 1960s suggested by an expert, who however received criticism of lack of further information. Write the appropriate letters A-C in boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet. NB you may use any letter more than once. 8 Human hunting well explained which species would finally disappear.
10 Over hunting situation has caused die-out of large mammals. 11 Illness rather than hunting caused extensive extinction. 12 Doubt raised through the study of several fossil records. 13 Climate shift is the main reason of extinction. A How busy is too busy?
Then there is a group of people for whom working every evening and weekend is normal, and frantic is the tempo of their lives. For most senior executives, workloads swing between extremely busy and frenzied. B Three warning signs alert Plumridge about his workload: sleep, scheduling and family. Plumridge, the father of a three-year-old daughter, and expecting a second child in October. C Executive stress is not confined to big organisations. Vanessa Stoykov has been running her own advertising and public relations business for seven years, specialising in work for financial and professional services firms. Stoykov thrives on the mental stimulation of running her own business.