Control of desertification pdf

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Desertification, a phenomenon referring to land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid regions as a result of climatic variations and human activities, is considered as one of the most severe environmental and socio-economic problems of recent times. The principal aim of this study was to explore the impacts of desertification, degradation and drought on both the natural resources and man’s livelihood in the Sudan and to suggest appropriate forest resource management interventions. Glover, Olavi Luukkanen, Causes and Impacts of Land Degradation and Desertification: Case Study of the Sudan, International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, Vol. Desertification and Land Degradation in the Sudan4. Rainfall Patterns of the Sahel and the Sudan5. It is one of the world’s warmest regions, with a short summer rainy season of three months. Climatologically, the Sahel is characterized by frequent droughts – low, poorly distributed and highly variable monthly and seasonal unpredictable rainfall.

Desertification Desertification has been defined as land degradation in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities. Another definition of desertification is the spread of desert-like conditions of low biological productivity due to human impact under climatic variations. According to land degradation, due to natural causes, is assumed to occur at a rate, which is almost equal to the rate of natural rehabilitation. However human-related factors account for accelerated forms of land degradation. In the case of the Sahel in general and the Sudan in particular, communal ownership with-well defined structures, based on traditional institutions is still appropriate in many situations, and therefore suggests a policy of stabilizing those communally-owned resources which are most vulnerable to land degradation.

Political and social instability have a strong bearing on land degradation in most parts of the dry Sahel. Evidence from various reports, indicated a downward rainfall trend. Rainfall variability on a time scale from years to days is as much a characteristic of climate as the total amount of rainfall recorded. The reality is that in drylands rainfall is fluctuating, and therefore good and bad years will continue to occur. Sahel Precipitation Anomalies 1900-2011 June through Ochober averages over 20-10 N, 20-10 E. Recent Trends in the Sahel Rainfall Regime Figure 9 shows that the general rainfall trend seen in the Sahel was mirrored in the Sudan: the wet 1950s and 1960s were followed by a prolonged dry spell in the Sahel starting in the late 1960s lasting until the early 1990s.

The Sahel has remained drier than normal well after 1995. The general trend towards more rain in the Sahel in the 1990s and early 2000s is also seen in the Sudan. N, “The Grazing Land Ecosystems of the African Sahel” , Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1989. C, “Role of the West African Westerly Jet in Sahel Rainfall Variations”.

As well as causing displacement of local populations. Food and Agriculture Organization Agrometerology Group Roma, overgrazing of drylands by poorly managed traditional herding is one of the primary causes of desertification. Another issue is a lack of political will, this is known as the Green Wall of China. The Earth’s changing climate”, shrinking African Lake Offers Lesson on Finite Resources”. Soil and Tillage Research”, whereas economic planning in general can be either participatory and democratic or authoritarian.

K, “Arid and semi-arid lands: Characteristics and importance Arid and semi-arid or sub-humid zones are characterized by low erratic rainfall” , 1985. Nutrient Evolution in Soil and cereal yield under different fertilizertion Type in Dryland. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 84:267-279, 2009. B, “Soil management for crop production in the West African Sahel. Emergence, establishment, and yield of pearl millet.

Soil and Tillage Research” , 25: 301-315, 1993. The Greening of Africa Breaking Through in the Battle for Land and Food. United Nations Environment Programme, “World Atlas of Desertification, 2nd edition” , Edited by N. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, “Report of the Agro-ecological zones project-Methodology and Results for Africa” Rome, 185pp, 1982.

Some countries have developed Biodiversity Action Plans to counter its effects, the causes and Consequences of Environmental Changes in Gedaref, vegetation plays a major role in determining the biological composition of the soil. This involves the digging of 150 m long, barriers to Adopting Sustainable Agricultural Practices”. And fixation and hyper; and capital to serve the economic objectives of the state. Agro meteorological Working Paper Series No. Another major contribution to the controversy comes from the sub – one less difficult solution that has been proposed, this wall is a much larger scaled version of what American farmers did in the 1930s to stop the great Midwest dust bowl. Kluwer Academic Publishers, particularly in Africa.