Challenges of globalization pdf

Economically, globalization involves goods and services, and the economic resources of capital, technology, and data. Though many scholars place the origins of globalization in modern times, others trace its history long before the European Age of Discovery challenges of globalization pdf voyages to the New World, some even to the third millennium BC. The term globalization derives from the word globalize, which refers to the emergence of an international network of economic systems.

One of the earliest known usages of the term as a noun was in a 1930 publication entitled Towards New Education, where it denoted a holistic view of human experience in education. Sociologists Martin Albrow and Elizabeth King define globalization as “all those processes by which the people of the world are incorporated into a single world society. Although in its simplistic sense globalization refers to the widening, deepening and speeding up of global interconnection, such a definition begs further elaboration. Globalization can be on a continuum with the local, national and regional. Held and his co-writers’ definition of globalization in that same book as “transformation in the spatial organization of social relations and transactions—assessed in terms of their extensity, intensity, velocity and impact—generating transcontinental or inter-regional flows” was called “probably the most widely-cited definition” in the 2014 DHL Global Connectiveness Index. It pertains to the increasing ease with which somebody on one side of the world can interact, to mutual benefit, with somebody on the other side of the world.

Globalization is the extension of social relations across world-space, defining that world-space in terms of the historically variable ways that it has been practiced and socially understood through changing world-time. American Negro and his problem are taking on a global significance”. Economist Takis Fotopoulos defined “economic globalization” as the opening and deregulation of commodity, capital, and labor markets that led toward present neoliberal globalization. Globophobia is used to refer to the fear of globalization, though it can also mean the fear of balloons.

There are both distal and proximate causes which can be traced in the historical factors affecting globalization. Large-scale globalization began in the 19th century. Archaic globalization conventionally refers to a phase in the history of globalization including globalizing events and developments from the time of the earliest civilizations until roughly the 1600s. In this schema, three main prerequisites are posited for globalization to occur. The first is the idea of Eastern Origins, which shows how Western states have adapted and implemented learned principles from the East. Also posited is a “multi-polar” nature to archaic globalization, which involved the active participation of non-Europeans. Trade on the Silk Road was a significant factor in the development of civilizations from China, Indian subcontinent, Persia, Europe, and Arabia, opening long-distance political and economic interactions between them.

Early modern-” or “proto-globalization” covers a period of the history of globalization roughly spanning the years between 1600 and 1800. The concept of “proto-globalization” was first introduced by historians A. Early modern globalization is distinguished from modern globalization on the basis of expansionism, the method of managing global trade, and the level of information exchange. During the early 19th century the United Kingdom was a global superpower.